Infusing spirits with flavor is a great way to experiment with your own personal tastes. The basic concept is to marry a variety of choice flavors into a base liquor to create a custom-flavored spirit. Vodka is the most common base spirit used and the other light spirits (gin, sake, light rum) can also be used for almost any flavor. Infusing darker spirits is a little touchier but it will work if you choose the right complimentary flavor to the liquor like an apricot or cherry brandy.
Time Required: up to 2 weeks
The whole plant is aromatic. When rubbed, young stalks and leaves have a sweet, musky scent; the taste is musky and bittersweet, slightly earthy,and warm, with notes of celery, anise, and juniper. The flowers have a honeyed fragrance.
Combines well with:
almonds, apricots, hazelnuts, oranges, plums, rhubarb, strawberries
The freezing point is far below that of water. Exactly what that freezing point is depends on the proof of the liquor.
* Science is beginning to catch up with the art of mixing drinks, giving birth to the field of 'molecular mixology
* Most research is done behind the scenes in makeshift labs or by chemists in their spare time
* Chemistry has shed light on myths about ice and shaking drinks, and inspired new ingredients & techniques
They look more like modern works of art than anything that has come out of a science laboratory:
But these striking and colourful images are actually samples of alcoholic drinks that have been magnified up to 1000 times under a powerful laboratory microscope.Capturing the molecules that make up our favourite drinks like vodka, rose wine and tequila, the pictures were taken in Florida State University's chemistry department.
Multiply the volume percent age by the specific gravity of absolute alcohol (0 7936), and divide the product by the specific gravity of the liquid in question.
La Wall has found in some recent investigations2 that many so-called root beers have a large percentage of alcohol. Such beverages as these should be classed under alcoholic drinks.
These are wines containing medicinal drugs, and are typically represented by the six medicated wines of the British Pharmacopoeia, namely, Antimonial Wine, Colchicum Wine, Iron Wine, Wine of Iron Citrate, Ipecacuanha Wine, and Quinine Wine. The basis may be either a foreign wine or a British wine; thus of those in the above list the preparations of iron citrate and quinine are made with orange wine, and the others with sherry.
For determination of quinine alkaloids, 50 c.c. are taken - conveniently in a 100 c.c. cylinder fitted with a blow-off arrangement similar to that of an ordinary wash-bottle.
A considerable number of beverages are sold under this designation. Some contain grape juice, unfermented, but the majority are solutions of sugar, coloured and flavoured to imitate more or less closely one or other description of wine. They are not in general strictly non-alcoholic, nor of course are they "wine," so that the designation is somewhat of a misnomer. Apart from any question of adventitious fermentation, the alcohol they contain is due to the use of spirituous flavouring ingredients. Thus a "nonalcoholic ginger wine " may be flavoured with tincture of ginger, an "orange wine" with tincture of orange, and so on. Various "wine essences" are sold ready-made, needing only to be diluted with syrup in stated proportions to produce the required beverage. One such essence, for example, is as follows: Tincture of ginger 4 dr., tincture of capsicum 3 dr., tartaric acid 6 dr., caramel 2 oz., water to 4 oz. To be added to a syrup made by boiling 4 lb. of loaf sugar in 125 oz. of water. The finer essences are spirituous solutions of various esters such as œnanthic ester, acetic ester, and nitrous ether, with flavourings of vanilla, almond, and other essential oils, tartaric or citric acids, and colourings.
A small proportion of the imbibed alcohol is excreted unchanged, mainly through the lungs and in the urine. The actual quantity thus lost is variable. Any influence which hastens absorption into the blood, or stimulates the production of urine, or augments the vigour of respiration, will tend to increase the quantity of alcohol eliminated in an unchanged form. The loss, however, never exceeds 10 per cent. of the quantity of alcohol swallowed, and is usually much less - about 2 per cent. on an average. As little as 1 per cent. of a moderate dose may escape where habitual drinkers are concerned.
Alcohol is one of the most useful of solvents, both for organic and inorganic substances, but especially the former. It dissolves balsams, essential oils, esters, fatty acids, hydrocarbons, resins, soaps, sugars, most vegetable alkaloids, and a large number of pharmaceutical drugs such as acetanilide, camphor, chloralamide, phenacetin, and phenazone. The fixed oils and fats are but sparingly soluble in alcohol, a notable exception, however, being castor oil, which is readily dissolved. As regards inorganic substances, alcohol dissolves the hydroxides of the alkali metals, but not the carbonates. Ammonium chloride, and indeed most of the chlorides which are readily soluble in water, are dissolved by alcohol. The following table of the solubility of various alkali halides in methyl and ethyl alcohols is due to Turner and Bissett: . 1
Alcohol at a strength of about 10 per cent. and upwards acts as a preservative of many organic substances. and is often added to medicinal preparations, extracts, wines, etc., to prevent putrefactive deterioration. In the absence of better antiseptic remedies it may serve as a useful application to wounds if used somewhat freely and of not too low a strength - say 50 to 80 per cent. In many spirituous liniments the alcohol, apart from any purpose which it may serve as solvent or antiseptic, has a mild effect as a counter-irritant, since when well rubbed into the skin it dilates the blood-vessels. When, on the other hand, it is used as a lotion merely to bathe the surface of the skin, and allowed to evaporate, it produces a cooling effect and diminishes the amount of sweat excreted. Hence its use, in the form of Eau de Cologne, Florida water, lavender water, and so on, to soothe certain forms of headache.
An inter-departmental Committee was appointed in October, 1918, to consider questions relating to the supply of alcohol, its manufacture, cost, method of denaturing, and suitability for use in internal-combustion engines.1 The report of this Committee appeared whilst the present volume was in the final stages of printing. Some of the chief conclusions are indicated hereunder.
Under the influence of the electric spark discharge in an atmosphere of nitrogen for a lengthened period, ethyl alcohol and its homologues combine with nitrogen, yielding bodies of an amido- or basic nature (Berthelot).1 Hydrogen is evolved, methyl alcohol yielding 1 atom per molecule, and ethyl alcohol 2 atoms. One atom of nitrogen is fixed for every 2 atoms of hydrogen evolved.
If dry chlorine is passed into strong alcohol to saturation, the mixture being at first cooled and afterwards heated slowly to 100°, the alcohol is chlorinated, the final product being a crystalline mixture of chloral hydrate, chloral alcoholate, and trichloroacetal. On distilling the crystalline product with sulphuric acid, chloral is obtained. With bromine, the corresponding product, bromal, is given. Alcohol distilled from bleaching powder yields chloroform. This reaction is usually explained as one in which both oxidation and chlorination proceed simultaneously, aldehyde being first produced by oxidation, and then ultimately converted into trichloroaldehyde or chloral, CCl3.CHO. The latter substance reacts with the calcium hydroxide present, yielding chloroform and calcium formate: -
2CC13.CHO + Ca(OH)2 == 2CHC13 + CaH1(CO2)2.
P. Askenasy and coadjutors have investigated the conditions necessary for obtaining the best yield of acetic acid when alcohol is oxidised electrolytically.1 No diaphragm was used in the experimental cell employed, the electrodes being placed only 3 mm. apart. A little sulphuric acid was added to the diluted alcohol. Using rectified spirit, the best yield (80.6 per cent.) was obtained with current density 21 amperes per sq. dcm., potential 4 volts, and temperature 35°. Some aldehyde and ethyl acetate was formed during the process of electrolysis: the ethyl acetate becomes hydrolysed as the alcohol is used up, and towards the end of the oxidation some of the acetic acid is decomposed with evolution of carbon dioxide. On neutralising the electrolysed liquid with soda and evaporating down, sodium acetate is obtained, contaminated with sodium sulphate only. For economical working, fermented beetroot juice was used instead of rectified alcohol, and the best results were pbtained when about 2 grams of chromium sulphate per litre of electrolyte were added as an oxygen-carrier. Under these conditions, at temperature 30-35°, with current density 12 amperes per sq. dcm. and potential 3 7 volts, a yield of about 93 per cent, was obtained. The authors consider that, given cheap power, and using the fermented beetroot juice as the source of alcohol, the electrolytic process might compete with existing methods of manufacturing acetic acid.
Specimens of "plain" spirit are frequently required to be tested as regards general purity and suitability for use in pharmacy, perfumery, or other arts. Defects due to imperfect rectification are not often met with in ordinary "patent-still " spirit of good quality; but even with such spirit impurities may have been introduced through careless storage or accidental admixture.
Speaking broadly, oxidising agents convert ethyl alcohol into aldehyde and acetic acid: -
C2H5.OH+O=CH3.CHO + H1O;
C2H5.OH+O2=CH3.COOH + H1O.
The ordinary methods of estimating ethyl alcohol when mixed with water only are dealt with in the-chapter on Alcoholometry. In the following pages various special processes are given, including methods for the determination of ethyl alcohol in mixture with ether, chloroform, acetone, and other substances.
Absolute alcohol contains no water, and has a specific gravity of 0.7938 at 15.55 C. (60° F.) and boils at (174° F.).
Loss of flavor is a mysterious disappearance only in resinous beverages, so far as our knowledge reaches, the ginger flavor in ginger ale being the principal one. Suggestions were invited and remedies requested by the trade.
The highest grade of distilled alcohol is called Cologne spirits, used largely in the preparation of perfumes, etc., and is said to be more absolute in its purity than ordinary alcohol. It should be so pure that it is absolutely colorless and odorless, Diluted Alcohol or Proof Spirit. - Diluted alcohol (alcohol dilu-tum), proof spirit, is spirit containing fifty per cent, by volume of absolute alcohol and water, and having the specific gravity 0.936 at 15.55° 0. (60° F.), and this strength has been adopted as the standard proof spirit of the United States custom house and internal revenue service.
Like a good science you try the experiment for couple of times and yes it will give you the same result.
We found out that 40 ml of water added to 40ml of alcohol gave 78ml!
When alcohol is mixed with water an elevation of the temperature is observed, and the mixture assumes for a short time an opalescent appearance from the dissolved air, which is expelled in numerous minute bubbles, after which it becomes perfectly transparent; when it has cooled to the ordinary temperature the volume will be found diminished. This contraction is- greatest on mixing 55 measures of absolute alcohol with 45 measures of water, which will yield 06.23 measures of weaker alcohol, showing a loss of volume equal to 3.77 per cent. - N.D.
Drinking too much alcohol can cause hangovers. This happens because drinking alcohol can cause blood vessels in the brain to swell, leading to pressure that results in severe headaches. A single alcoholic drink is enough to trigger a hangover for some people. In general, more than three to five alcoholic drinks for a woman and over five to six for a man will usually result in a hangover. About 75% of people who drink until they are drunk will have a hangover the next day.
Blackouts occur when people have no memory of what happened during a time of heavy drinking. The periods of memory loss may last from a few hours to several days. During a blackout, a person may appear to be fine to others, but the next day they cannot remember all or part of what happened during the blackout. Memories during the time of alcohol consumption are lost or possibly not recorded at all by the brain. Most alcohol-induced blackouts occur with binge drinking. In some people, however, alcohol can produce memory impairments after just a few drinks. People who binge drink, drink on empty stomachs, or drink alcohol too quickly are more at risk to blackout.
This happens when large amounts of alcohol are consumed in a very short period of time. Consuming too much alcohol too quickly causes a breakdown of the body’s systems, which can lead to death. Although teens may feel invincible while drinking, their body systems may react strongly, particularly if they are not regular drinkers. When a person’s body absorbs too much alcohol, it can have a direct impact on the central nervous system, breathing, heart rate, and gag reflex. This can lead to choking, coma, and even death. One reason this can happen is because the medulla, which controls heartbeats, breathing, and other functions, can be affected by heavy drinking and cause these functions to stop working, endangering your life. Another reason this can happen is because the reticular activating system, which controls sleeping and waking, can be depressed, causing unconsciouness.
Blood alcohol content or blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is the amount of alcohol in a person’s blood. BAC is primarily used as a measurement of intoxication for legal or medical purposes.
When people drink alcohol, it travels through the body in their bloodstream. Alcohol reaches every organ and distributes throughout the water in our bodies. Organs such as the brain, which contain a lot of water and need an ample blood supply to work, are particularly affected by alcohol. Other organs, including the liver, the heart, the pancreas, and the kidneys, are also affected by alcohol within minutes after it enters the bloodstream.
Now let’s look at how alcohol affects four body systems: Digestive, Central Nervous, Circulatory, and Endocrine.
Warnings not to drink alcohol while taking a medication are often ignored. But mixing Flagyl (metronidazole), an antibiotic, with alcoholic beverages can make a person very sick. Find out what happens when these two drugs are mixed.
Flagyl (Metronidazole) Interactions With Alcohol
"You can hinder your respiration," said Roger A. Clemens, of the University of Southern California's School of Pharmacy. "From a public health perspective, you should not mix stimulants with alcohol."
variety found in most areas, with the
largest plantings in Tuscany and the island
of Elba. It is also grown in Corsica and it is
a minor variety in California. It has a
muscat flavour and is somewhat like a
black form of Muscat à petits grains.
In Italy, Aleatico is used to make a
highly regarded sweet, ruby coloured,
muscat wine. Aleatico can be used to
make white wines and fortified wines and
could be tried as a substitute for Muscat à
petits grains where there are problems
with that variety.
The following list is an introduction to the language of wine flavour and aroma; you
can learn more: